Chicago Writing Format


One of the writing formats is Chicago format which has been published in 1906 by the University of Chicago. There are two styles of Chicago writing, one is the humanistic style where you include notes and references and other is the author- date system. Both are being adopted by different groups of scholars.


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In Chicago referencing style you have to make your whole document double-spaced. The feature that distinguishes Chicago writing style is inclusion of foot notes and end notes. And obviously references. It protects writer from plagiarism. Footnotes are placed at the end of page and end notes are compiled at the end of each chapter or document. For in-text citation, you have choice for using MLA style or APA style. Both will provide author name and year of publication.

Example for In-text Citation:
Several rivers aside from the Thames once intersected London, although those rivers have since been covered over by development (Clayton 2000, 28).


Reference at the end:
References should be placed alphabetically included all the sources (books, journals, websites, magazines etc) starting from author’s last name. If incase author is not listed then title or keyword can be used.
There are some citation samples which you can use for references.

• Author. Year. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher.

Okuda, Michael, and Denise Okuda. 1993. Star trek chronology: The history of the future. New York: Pocket Books.


Journal Article
• Author. Year. Title of Article."Title of Journal Volume number (Year): Page(s).
Wilcox, Rhonda V. 1991. Shifting roles and synthetic women in Startrek: The next generation. Studies in Popular Culture 13 (2): 53-65.


Magazine Article:
• Author. Year. Title of Article. Publisher. Date of Publication.

Smith, Jane. 1996. There is no resisting the Borg queen. Maclean's, December 2.


Daily newspapers source are seldom included in list of Chicago reference style. The format follows like this.
• Author (year, month of publication). Title of article. Magazine Title, volume number.
Di Rado, Alicia. 1995. Trekking through college: Classes explore modern society using the world of Star trek. Los Angeles Times, (section 17.237)


• Author, A. A. (year, month date of publication). Title of article. URL. Retrieved Date.
Lynch, Tim. 1996. Review of DS9 trials and tribble-ations. Psi Phi: Bradley's Science Fiction Club. psiphi/DS9/ep/503r.html (accessed October 8, 1997). March 15, sec. A.



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